BUDS Lab is a scientific research group that leverages data sources from the built and urban environments to improve the energy efficiency and conservation, comfort, safety and satisfaction of humans.

Check us out on Twitter, GitHub, and ResearchGate! Also, take a peek at our sibling labs in NUS with whom we collaborate closely - the Urban Analytics Lab (UAL) and the Integrated Data, Energy Analysis + Simulation (IDEAS) Lab.

BUDS lab

BUDS Lab is in the Department of the Built Environment in the College of Design and Engineering at the National University of Singapore (NUS). NUS is ranked in the Top 10 globally in 16 subjects, including #6 in the Built Environment.


Project Cozie Apple Cozie Apple Watch (ResearchGate) – The latest version of the Cozie clockface application for the Apple Watch platform. This open-source project is led by Dr. Federico Tartarini and is a collaboration with Prof. Stefano Schiavon’s team at the SinBerBEST 2 Lab in Singapore.

IoB The Internet-of-Buildings (IoB) Project – The IoB project focuses on the technology and data convergence of the various researchers in the NUS Dept. of the Built Environment. This project is a collaboration with Prof. Daniel Wong and it ties together several projects from within the department.

EDx Data Science for Construction, Architecture and Engineering Online EDx Course – The BUDS Lab hosts the first online data science course focused specifically on data analytics from the various phases of the building life cycle - design, construction, and operations. This is an introductory course that adds Python, the Pandas Data Analytics library and various visualization and machine learning techniques to the toolbox of architects, engineers, operations, and other industry professionals. Over 15,000 participants have taken this course since April 2020.

BDG2 The Building Data Genome Project 2 (BDG2) (ResearchGate) – The BDG2 Project is an open data set made up of 3,053 energy meters from 1,636 buildings. The data set is two full years (2016 and 2017) of hourly frequency measurements from electricity, heating and cooling water, steam, and irrigation meters. A subset of the data was used in the Great Energy Predictor III (GEPIII) competition hosted by the ASHRAE organization in late 2019.

ASHRAE Kaggle The ASHRAE Great Energy Predictor III (GEPIII) Competition on Kaggle (ResearchGate) – The BUDS Lab was the leading technical organizer of the biggest building energy-related machine learning competition ever held with over 3,614 teams who submitted 39,402 predictions. The competition included data from 2,380 energy meters collected from 1,448 buildings in 16 sites and had US$25,000 in prize money for the top five winners. The competition ran from Oct.-Dec. 2019 and was sponsored by ASHRAE and hosted on the Kaggle platform. This competition is a resurrection of prediction challenges hosted by ASHRAE in the mid-1990’s

SpaceMatch SpaceMatch – SpaceMatch is the Uber® of flexible workspaces – an AI-enhanced spatial recommendation engine that matches building occupants to suitable workspaces based on comfort preferences. A live demonstration was implemented in the SDE4 building at NUS and is the focus of a team within the NUS GRIP Program in early 2021.

Project Cozie Fitbit Project Cozie Fitbit (ResearchGate) – A Fitbit-based clockface application that collects momentary assessments of thermal, aural, lighting, and other subjective comfort parameters. This open-source platform is being developed for researchers anywhere in the world to use a methodological component.

Past Projects


Lab Leader

Prof. Dr. Clayton Miller Dr. Clayton Miller (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(Scopus)(Google Scholar)(ORCID)(Publons)(GitHub)(Kaggle) is an Asst. Professor at NUS in the BUDS Lab, the Co-Leader of Theme D - Data Analytics at the UC Berkeley SinBerBEST2 Lab and the Co-Leader of Subtask 4 of the IEA Annex 79 Occupant-Centric Building Design and Operation (ResearchGate). He holds a Doctor of Sciences (Dr. sc. ETH Zurich) from the ETH Zürich in Switzerland, an MSc. (Building) from the NUS, and a BSc./Masters of Architectural Engineering (MAE) from the University of Nebraska - Lincoln (UNL) in the USA. He is the former CTO of Optiras Pte. Ltd, a Singapore NRF-funded start-up, a former Fulbright Scholar to Singapore at NUS and a Walter Scott Jr. Scholar at UNL.

Researchers (Alphabetic Order)

Bianca Picchetti Bianca Picchetti (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(GitHub) is a Data Scientist who leads several BUDS Lab analytics projects. She holds a Degree in Chemistry and is working on a Masters in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery from the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina. Bianca leads the data analysis process for the Building Data Genome 2 Project and the GEPIII competition.

Charis Boey Charis Boey (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(ORCID)(Kaggle)(StackOverflow) is a Student Researcher at NUS in the BUDS Lab from the Infrastructure & Project Management (IPM) program at NUS. Charis assists with deployment and management of Project Cozie experiments.

Chun Fu Chun Fu (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(GitHub)(ORCID)(Kaggle) is a Ph.D. Researcher at NUS in the BUDS Lab. He holds a B.Sc. in Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering and a Master of Science (M.S.) in Sustainable Environment and Green Architecture from the National Taiwan University. Chun is working on the analysis of large portfolios of buildings using machine learning techniques.

Kristi Maisha Kristi Maisha (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn) is a U.S. Student Fulbright Scholar at NUS in the BUDS Lab working on studying human behaviors in conjunction with building sensors and controls to achieve zero-energy buildings. She recently finished a Bachelor’s of Engineering in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Vanderbilt University and has previously interned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). She will start a Ph.D. program in Fall 2023 in Civil Engineering at Stanford University.

Dr. Mario Frei Dr. Mario Frei (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(Scopus)(ORCID) is a Research Fellow at NUS in the BUDS Lab. He holds a Doctor of Sciences (Dr. sc. ETH Zurich) in Architectural and Building Sciences/Technology and a Bachelor’s (BSc.) and Masters of Science (MSc.) in Mechanical Engineering from the ETH Zürich in Switzerland. Mario is the equivalent of the BUDS Lab Oberassistent (Senior Researcher) as he ties together all the technologies being developed through his leadership in the Digital Twin Project. He is an expert in hardware prototyping, engineering, design, and navigating admin policies.

Matias Alberto Quintana Rosales Matias Quintana (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(GitHub) has successfully defended his Ph.D. at NUS in Oct. 2022 and is now a Research Fellow in the BUDS Lab. Matias is the lab research and development manager and is tying together the different projects and researchers together. He holds a Master of Information Systems Management from the Heinz College at Carnegie Mellon University and a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. Matias is a combination computer scientist and hardware hacker and is using these skills to implement wearable tech in the built environment.

Yun Xuan Chua Yun Xuan Chua (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn) is a Research Associate and Project Manager in the BUDS Lab. She is a recent graduate of the Infrastructure & Project Management (IPM) program at NUS. Yun Xuan leads the development of the Internet-of-Buildings portal and organizes experimental deployments.

Affiliated Researchers

Charlene Tan Charlene Tan (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn) is a Lab Executive in the Department of the Built Environment and collaborator of the BUDS Lab. She is a recent graduate of the Infrastructure & Project Management program at NUS. Charlene assists in the management of the Data Science for Construction, Architecture and Engineering Online EDx Course and assists with the Internet-of-Buildings portal and experimental deployments.

Dr. Martin Mosteiro-Romero Dr. Martin Mosteiro Romero (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn)(GitHub)(Google Scholar) is a Post-Doctoral Researcher in NUS as part of the Future Resilient Systems (FRS) Lab within the Module 1.4 - Digital Twin-Enabled System Resilience. The NUS part of this project is led by Prof. Rudi Stouffs and it is a collaboration with Prof. Gabriela Hug at the ETH Zurich and Prof. Adrian Law from NTU. Dr. Mosteiro holds a Doctor of Sciences (Dr. sc. ETH Zurich) and Masters in Energy Science from the ETH Zürich and a Bachelor’s Degree in Bioenvironmental Engineering from Rutgers University in the USA. Dr. Mosteiro is investigating how to use digital twins to improve the resilience of building systems.

Dr. Vasantha Ramani Dr. Vasantha Ramani (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn) is a Post-Doctoral Researcher at the Berkeley Education Alliance for Research in Singapore (BEARS) and is in the Theme D: City-Scale Analytics project with the BUDS Lab and Prof. Kameshwar Poolla. She holds a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the National University of Singapore, Master’s in Structural and Earthquake Engineering from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and a Bachelor’s in Civil Engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Trichy. Dr. Ramani is investigating building energy performance and human thermal comfort using infrared images.

Yi Ting Teo Yi Ting Teo (ResearchGate)(LinkedIn) is a Research Associate and Project Manager in the IDEAS Lab and is collaborator of the BUDS Lab. She is a recent graduate of the Infrastructure & Project Management program at NUS. Yi Ting manages key parts of a project focused on mixed-mode ventilation innovation.



All current and in-progress publications found on ResearchGate and Google Scholar

Join the BUDS Lab!

Do any (or all) of these situations describe you?

If so, please (contact Dr. Clayton via email) to discuss upcoming projects. Research funding, scholarships, stipends, and grant affiliation are available. Previous projects that exemplify curiosity in any of the above points are desirable.

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